Canaiolo is an Italian red wine grape which has been made famous through its plantings in Tuscany, although the grape also exists and grows well throughout most of Italy.

Canaiolo has an interesting story in the Italian wine industry.  After vines started being passed back and forth from America to the old world, many of the rootstocks in the old world were decimated by vineyard pests from America.  Fortunately, most European grapes have been successfully grafted onto American rootstock (which is more resilient since it had an extra 700+ years in some cases without modern viticulture practices) but Canaiolo proved a more difficult case.

Only in the past few years, once plantings were at an all time low, did Canaiolo receive a greater amount of attention from scientists in Europe.  

Likely native to Tuscany there are a few genetic mutations around, specifically a white wine grape found in the same region.